All ya need to know about Lion's Mane extract (deep dive)

All ya need to know about Lion's Mane extract (deep dive)

Lion's Mane Mushroom deep dive post! 

The extract which we use in Extract Of Genius is the main subject of this post, we excluded the information about other ingredients of the Elixir. 

The evaluation of the mushroom extract has been made form the studies linked to the subject.

1. Composition 

The mushroom Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus) contains:

  • Hericenones A and C-H[4][5][6] 
  • Erinacines A-K[7][8] 
  • Orcinol derivatives[9] 
  • Sialic-acid binding lectin[10] 
  • Sterols, ergosterol and beta-sitosterol.[11] 
  • Polysaccharides : 

The polysaccharides themselve are also active in vivo, with 300mg/kg of the polysaccharides daily for 15 days can reduce the oxidative changes induced by ischemia / reperfusion.

 

2. Neurology

- Lion's Mane increases mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF)! in isolated astrocytes to around 5-fold that of control at 100-150ug/mL of the ethanolic extract in a concentration-dependent manner, with no efficacy noted in the water extract.[1] (we know it!) 

An increase in NGF mRNA has been detected in the hippocampus of mice given 5% of the diet as Lion's Mane for seven days to around 1.3-fold of control.[1]

Lion's Mane ethanolic extract appears to increase NGF mRNA levels, and this has been confirmed following oral administration to mice

When looking at neurons specifically, lion's mane appears to promote neuronal prolongation and formation of myelin [20]

 - Glutaminergic Neurotransmission

Neuronal excitability from glutamic acid appears to be attenuated in the presence of lion's mane extracts [20]

- Neuroprotection

Lion's Mane, has been implicated in preserving neurons from death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.[6]This mechanism of action is also seen with various benzene compounds in Lion's Mane.[21]

It has also been shown, in vitro, to enhance myelination (production of myelin sheath) of neurons, which may be downstream of NGF.[22]

- Cognition 

Lion's Mane appears to protect rats against cognitive decline caused by β-amyloid pigmentation at the same 5% of the diet seen previously.[23]

One human study using 3g of 98% lion's mane extract showed significant improvements on a rating scale of dementia in persons suffering from general cognitive decline.[24]The supplement increased cognition relative to control, and the degree of improvement increased with time; however, 4 weeks after cessation saw the start of a decline back to normal despite still being significantly elevated above control.[24] (It's you and Lion's Mane forever if you want to be sharpest thing in your toolbox) 

 

- Anxiety and Depressive symptoms

Have also been reduced in humans fed 2g of lion's mane, over the course of 4 weeks[25] There was a significant difference between groups on the measurements of concentration and irritability, favoring the lion's mane group.[25] 

-  Nerve Injury 

In a study conducted on rats,Lion's Mane extract could promote neuronal regrowth after crushing injury. Rats that had a gluteal nerve damaged during surgery were able to walk better after ingestion of the extract.[26]. This was conducted as a follow-up to an in vitro study suggesting neuronal growth from lion's mane, which showed no toxic symptoms.[27] 

3. Cardiovascular Health 

- Blood Pressure 

Lion's Mane has ACE inhibiting properties, although they appear pretty weak and may not be biologically relevant. The same molecule underlying these effects is unknown, but it may be a bioactive peptide. 

An extract of Lion's Mane is significantly less than the most potent tested mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (We recommend taking Essence of Zen for Blood Pressure) [17]

 

4. Fat Mass and Obesity

Lion's Mane appears to be a PPARα agonist, which may contribute to fat burning properties[35] 

5. Inflammation and Immunology

Lion's Mane has been noted to suppress LPS-induced macrophage activation (mostly chloroform fraction, but also seen with water and alcoholic extracts) associated with less activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and less nuclear translocation of NF-kB.[37]

The polysaccharide known as HEF-AP Fr II (a beta-glucan), conversely, has been found to stimulate macrophage activity itself as assessed by TNF-α and IL-β release at a concentration of 1mg/mL.[14] This may be related to the increase in macrophage and T-cell count seen with incubations of this mushroom.[38]

Differing compounds in Lion's Mane modulate the immune system differently, with the polysaccharides appearing to be immunostimulatory but other molecules (mainly in the chloroform extract) appearing to suppress macrophage activation.

6. Interactions with Cancer 

Colon 

In vitro, the hot water and ethanolic extracts of lion's mane show anti-metastatic potential in CT-26 colon cancer cells at 500µg/mL associated with less ERK and JNK phosphorylation, which resulted in less MMP secretion and lamellipodia formation.[40]

Extracts of lion's mane appear to inhibit metastasis of colon cancer cells to the lung by 66-69% with 10mg/kg injections of extracts made of the fruiting bodies..[40]

7. Skin 

Lion's Mane is associated with increasing the rate of repair of flesh wounds when the extract is applied to the wound[39] 

 

 

References : 

1.^MORI K, OBARA Y, HIROTA M, AZUMI Y, KINUGASA S, INATOMI S, NAKAHATA NNERVE GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCING ACTIVITY OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS IN 1321N1 HUMAN ASTROCYTOMA CELLSBIOL PHARM BULL.(2008 SEP)
2.^WONG KH, NAIDU M, DAVID RP, BAKAR R, SABARATNAM VNEUROREGENERATIVE POTENTIAL OF LION'S MANE MUSHROOM, HERICIUM ERINACEUS (BULL.: FR.) PERS. (HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES), IN THE TREATMENT OF PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURY (REVIEW)INT J MED MUSHROOMS.(2012)
3.^BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN YAMABUSHITAKE, THE HERICIUM ERINACEUM FUNGUS, AND ITS MEDICINAL UTILIZATION.()
4.^YAOITA Y, DANBARA K, KIKUCHI MTWO NEW AROMATIC COMPOUNDS FROM HERICIUM ERINACEUM (BULL.: FR.) PERS(1)CHEM PHARM BULL (TOKYO).(2005 SEP)
5.^CHROMANS, HERICENONES F, G AND H FROM THE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
6.^UEDA K, TSUJIMORI M, KODANI S, CHIBA A, KUBO M, MASUNO K, SEKIYA A, NAGAI K, KAWAGISHI HAN ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) STRESS-SUPPRESSIVE COMPOUND AND ITS ANALOGUES FROM THE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUMBIOORG MED CHEM.(2008 NOV 1)
7.^ERINACINES J AND K FROM THE MYCELIA OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
8.^ERINACINES E, F, AND G, STIMULATORS OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF)-SYNTHESIS, FROM THE MYCELIA OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
9.^ANTIMICROBIAL CHLORINATED ORCINOL DERIVATIVES FROM MYCELIA OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
10.^A SIALIC ACID-BINDING LECTIN FROM THE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
11.^LI JL, LU L, DAI CC, CHEN K, QIU JYA COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STEROLS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT AND WATER EXTRACT FROM HERICIUM ERINACEUSZHONGGUO ZHONG YAO ZA ZHI.(2001 DEC)
12.^MIZUNO T, WASA T, ITO H, SUZUKI C, UKAI NANTITUMOR-ACTIVE POLYSACCHARIDES ISOLATED FROM THE FRUITING BODY OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM, AN EDIBLE AND MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CALLED YAMABUSHITAKE OR HOUTOUBIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM.(1992 FEB)
13.^XU H, WU PR, SHEN ZY, CHEN XDCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM POLYSACCHARIDES AND EFFECT OF THE POLYSACCHARIDES ON DERMA ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, MMP-1 AND TIMP-1 ACTIVITIESINT J BIOL MACROMOL.(2010 JUL 1)
14.^LEE JS, MIN KM, CHO JY, HONG EKSTUDY OF MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PURIFIED POLYSACCHARIDES FROM THE FRUITING BODY OF HERICIUM ERINACEUSJ MICROBIOL BIOTECHNOL.(2009 SEP)
15.^DONG Q, JIA LM, FANG JNA BETA-D-GLUCAN ISOLATED FROM THE FRUITING BODIES OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS AND ITS AQUEOUS CONFORMATIONCARBOHYDR RES.(2006 MAY 1)
16.^HAN ZH, YE JM, WANG GFEVALUATION OF IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS POLYSACCHARIDESINT J BIOL MACROMOL.(2013 JAN)
17.^ABDULLAH N, ISMAIL SM, AMINUDIN N, SHUIB AS, LAU BFEVALUATION OF SELECTED CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ACE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIESEVID BASED COMPLEMENT ALTERNAT MED.(2012)
18.^EFFECTS OF CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES AND PROCESSING ON ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS ( BULL .: FR .) PERS . EXTRACTS.()
19.^ERINACINES A, B AND C, STRONG STIMULATORS OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF)-SYNTHESIS, FROM THE MYCELIA OF HERICIUM ERINACEUM.()
20.^NEUROTROPIC AND TROPHIC ACTION OF LION'S MANE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUS (BULL.: FR.) PERS. (APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE) EXTRACTS ON NERVE CELLS IN VITRO.()
21.^UEDA K, KODANI S, KUBO M, MASUNO K, SEKIYA A, NAGAI K, KAWAGISHI HENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) STRESS-SUPPRESSIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCRAP CULTIVATION BEDS OF THE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUMBIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM.(2009 AUG)
22.^KOLOTUSHKINA EV, MOLDAVAN MG, VORONIN KY, SKIBO GGTHE INFLUENCE OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS EXTRACT ON MYELINATION PROCESS IN VITROFIZIOL ZH.(2003)
23.^MORI K, OBARA Y, MORIYA T, INATOMI S, NAKAHATA NEFFECTS OF HERICIUM ERINACEUS ON AMYLOID Β(25-35) PEPTIDE-INDUCED LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN MICEBIOMED RES.(2011 FEB)
24.^MORI K, INATOMI S, OUCHI K, AZUMI Y, TUCHIDA TIMPROVING EFFECTS OF THE MUSHROOM YAMABUSHITAKE (HERICIUM ERINACEUS) ON MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: A DOUBLE-BLIND PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALPHYTOTHER RES.(2009 MAR)
25.^NAGANO M, SHIMIZU K, KONDO R, HAYASHI C, SATO D, KITAGAWA K, OHNUKI KREDUCTION OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY BY 4 WEEKS HERICIUM ERINACEUS INTAKEBIOMED RES.(2010 AUG)
26.^WONG KH, NAIDU M, DAVID P, ABDULLA MA, ABDULLAH N, KUPPUSAMY UR, SABARATNAM VPERIPHERAL NERVE REGENERATION FOLLOWING CRUSH INJURY TO RAT PERONEAL NERVE BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUS (BULL.: FR) PERS. (APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE)EVID BASED COMPLEMENT ALTERNAT MED.(2011)
27.^ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF LION'S MANE MUSHROOM HERICIUM ERINACEUS (BULL.: FR.) PERS. (APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE) ON THE NEURAL CELL LINE NG108-15.()
28.^FARNDALE RW, SIXMA JJ, BARNES MJ, DE GROOT PGTHE ROLE OF COLLAGEN IN THROMBOSIS AND HEMOSTASISJ THROMB HAEMOST.(2004 APR)
29.^MORI K, KIKUCHI H, OBARA Y, IWASHITA M, AZUMI Y, KINUGASA S, INATOMI S, OSHIMA Y, NAKAHATA NINHIBITORY EFFECT OF HERICENONE B FROM HERICIUM ERINACEUS ON COLLAGEN-INDUCED PLATELET AGGREGATIONPHYTOMEDICINE.(2010 DEC 1)
30.^ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR FROM GRIFOLA FRONDOSA.()
31.^ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY PEPTIDE DERIVED FROM THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM TRICHOLOMA GIGANTEUM.()
32.^HAGIWARA SY, TAKAHASHI M, SHEN Y, KAIHOU S, TOMIYAMA T, YAZAWA M, TAMAI Y, SIN Y, KAZUSAKA A, TERAZAWA MA PHYTOCHEMICAL IN THE EDIBLE TAMOGI-TAKE MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS CORNUCOPIAE), D-MANNITOL, INHIBITS ACE ACTIVITY AND LOWERS THE BLOOD PRESSURE OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATSBIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM.(2005 AUG)
33.^INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF L-PIPECOLIC ACID FROM THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM, SARCODON ASPRATUS, ON ANGIOTENSIN I-CONVERTING ENZYME.()
34.^ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ACE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES IN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSATES OF THE COTTON LEAFWORM, SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS.()
35.^HIWATASHI K, KOSAKA Y, SUZUKI N, HATA K, MUKAIYAMA T, SAKAMOTO K, SHIRAKAWA H, KOMAI MYAMABUSHITAKE MUSHROOM (HERICIUM ERINACEUS) IMPROVED LIPID METABOLISM IN MICE FED A HIGH-FAT DIETBIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM.(2010)
36.^YANG BK, PARK JB, SONG CHHYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF AN EXO-BIOPOLYMER PRODUCED FROM A SUBMERGED MYCELIAL CULTURE OF HERICIUM ERINACEUSBIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM.(2003 JUN)
37.^KIM YO, LEE SW, OH CH, RHEE YHHERICIUM ERINACEUS SUPPRESSES LPS-INDUCED PRO-INFLAMMATION GENE ACTIVATION IN RAW264.7 MACROPHAGESIMMUNOPHARMACOL IMMUNOTOXICOL.(2011 NOV 29)
38.^WANG JC, HU SH, SU CH, LEE TMANTITUMOR AND IMMUNOENHANCING ACTIVITIES OF POLYSACCHARIDE FROM CULTURE BROTH OF HERICIUM SPPKAOHSIUNG J MED SCI.(2001 SEP)
39.^ABDULLA MA, FARD AA, SABARATNAM V, WONG KH, KUPPUSAMY UR, ABDULLAH N, ISMAIL SPOTENTIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CULINARY-MEDICINAL LION'S MANE MUSHROOM, HERICIUM ERINACEUS (BULL.: FR.) PERS. (APHYLLOPHOROMYCETIDEAE) IN ACCELERATING WOUND HEALING IN RATSINT J MED MUSHROOMS.(2011)
40.^KIM SP, NAM SH, FRIEDMAN MHERICIUM ERINACEUS (LION'S MANE) MUSHROOM EXTRACTS INHIBIT METASTASIS OF CANCER CELLS TO THE LUNG IN CT-26 COLON CANCER-TANSPLANTED MICEJ AGRIC FOOD CHEM.(2013 MAY 22)
41.^PARK ID, YOO HS, LEE YW, SON CG, KWON M, SUNG HJ, CHO CKTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY ON MUNOPHIL, WATER EXTRACT OF PANAX GINSENG AND HERICIUM ERINACEUM IN RATSJ ACUPUNCT MERIDIAN STUD.(2008 DEC)
42.^NAKATSUGAWA M, TAKAHASHI H, TAKEZAWA C, NAKAJIMA K, HARADA K, SUGAWARA Y, KOBAYASHI S, KONDO T, ABE SHERICIUM ERINACEUM (YAMABUSHITAKE) EXTRACT-INDUCED ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME MONITORED BY SERUM SURFACTANT PROTEINSINTERN MED.(2003 DEC)
43.^A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE PROBABILITY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS.()

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